According to The European Society of Hypertension 2009 and 2016 Guidelines for Management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents: Hypertension in children and adolescents has gained ground in cardiovascular medicine, thanks to the progress made in several areas of pathophysiological and clinical research. These guidelines represent a consensus among specialists involved in the detection and control of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Similarly, the American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Practice Guidelines underline significant progress in childhood research in the last years. However, there are still evidence gaps both in basic and clinical research. Nevertheless, also still different in some aspects, both ESH and AAP guidelines synthesize a considerable amount of scientific data and clinical experience and represent best clinical wisdom upon which physicians, nurses and families should base their decisions. They call attention to the burden of hypertension in children and adolescents, and its contribution to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease. These guidelines should encourage public policy makers, to develop a global effort to improve identification and treatment of high blood pressure among children and adolescents. J Hypertens 2009; Journal of Hypertension 2016, Pediatrics 2017

Increasing prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in children and adolescents has become a significant public health issue driving a considerable amount of research. Aspects discussed in these documents include advances in the definition of HTN in children and adolescents, clinical significance of isolated systolic HTN in youth, the importance of out of office and central blood pressure measurement, new risk factors for HTN, methods to assess vascular phenotypes, clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and treatment strategies among others. The recommendations of the present document synthesize a considerable amount of scientific data and clinical experience and represent the best clinical wisdom upon which physicians, nurses and families should base their decisions. In addition, as they call attention to the burden of HTN in children and adolescents, and its contribution to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease, these guidelines should encourage public policy makers to develop a global effort to improve identification and treatment of high blood pressure among children and adolescents

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